MC 4163 FIRST EXAM STUDY GUIDE:
First Amendment and College Students
For the cases, know the facts of each one and the rules that emerged from them. What rationales or reasoning led to those rules? Be able to correctly recognize and apply those rationales and rules in hypothetical situations.
- Why is it that even state university students may speak, write and publish freely? In other words, how does the First Amendment apply on public college campuses?
- Healy v. James (1972)
- State colleges and universities are not enclaves immune from what?
- Which case did Justice Powell use as precedent to find strong First Amendment rights for public university students?
- Do First Amendment rights apply with less force on a college campus than in the community at large?
- Powell said the college classroom and its surroundings are what?
- Because denial of official status was a form of prior restraint, the university faced what?
- The university could not censor the student group for what reason? Regardless of what?
- For what reasons could the president censor the students?
- Universities could also impose what and require what?
Papish v. Board of Curators of the University of Missouri (1973)
- In this case, the court reaffirmed what?
- What is a per curiam opinion?
- The majority said Healy made what clear?
- According to the majority, was either the cartoon or the headline obscene?
- For what reason had Papish been expelled?
- The five well-established rules, enunciated in Bazaar, concerning censorship of the college press.
- What have courts specifically declared that public college administrators may not do to the college press?
- When can public universities censor student publications? Know the rule and an example.
- Does the Hazelwood decision apply to college publications?
- Kincaid v. Gibson (6th Cir. 2001)
- Hosty v. Carter (7th Cir. June 2005)
- According to the Seventh Circuit, in deciding whether the First Amendment rights of public university student journalists have been violated, the court must first determine what about the publication?
- Why is the public forum status of the publication important?
- If the publication was a non-public forum, what became the important question regarding the dean's action? (Under Hazelwood, what would be required of the administrator's reason for censoring?)
- Would the fact that a newspaper might be extracurricular determine its public forum status?
- According to the Seventh Circuit, what was the publication's public forum status?
- What factors did the court weigh in making that decision?
- Are students' personal home pages at public universities a form of student expression protected by the First Amendment? Base your answer on at least the following: the First Amendment's application on public college campuses; Bazaar v. Fortune; Antonelli v. Hammond; Lovell v. Griffin; ACLU v. Reno; and Reno v. ACLU.
- Which speech may be prohibited under the fighting words doctrine?
- The words must be used in a what?
- In 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court said rules prohibiting fighting words must be limited to words that have what?
- The U.S. Supreme Court has given states permission to restrict "fighting words" because their utterance could result in what, not because they do what?
- Campus speech codes:
- What principle did courts typically rely upon in ruling against university hate speech codes? What has happened to most university hate speech codes?
- According to the U.S. Dept. of Education's Office of Civil Rights, what is the difference between unprotected harassment and protected expression that offends?
- What is FIRE?
- What is a better solution to hate speech than censorship?
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